คำว่า accident นั้น ภาษาการบินเราใช้คำว่า “อุบัติเหตุ”
ส่วนคำว่า incident นั้นภาษาการบินเราใช้คำว่า “อุบัติการณ์” และคำว่า serious incident คือ “อุบัติการณ์ร้ายแรง”
คำว่า Accident หรือ อุบัติเหตุนั้นทางการบินมีการระบุกิจกรรมหรือการการทำที่ทำให้เกิดผลลัพท์ว่าเป็นอุบัติเหตุไว้ตามนี้ครับ
Accident. An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, in which:
- a) a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of:
- — being in the aircraft, or
- — direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including
parts which have become detached from the aircraft,
- — direct exposure to jet blast,
except when the injuries are from natural causes, self- inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to the passengers and crew; or
- — being in the aircraft, or
- b) the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which:
— adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft, and
— would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component,
except for engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to the engine, its cowlings or accessories; or for damage limited to propellers, wing tips, antennas, tires, brakes, fairings, small dents or puncture holes in the aircraft skin; or
- c) the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.
Note 1.— For statistical uniformity only, an injury resulting in death within thirty days of the date of the accident is classified as a fatal injury by ICAO.
Note 2.— An aircraft is considered to be missing when the official search has been terminated and the wreckage has not been located.
Incident. An occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft which affects or could affect the safety of operation.
Serious Incident หมายความว่าอย่างไร
Serious incident. An incident involving circumstances indicating that an accident nearly occurred.
Note 1.— The difference between an accident and a serious incident lies only in the result.
The incidents listed are typical examples of incidents that are likely to be serious incidents. The list is not exhaustive and only serves as guidance to the definition of serious incident.
Near collisions requiring an avoidance manoeuvre to avoid a collision or an unsafe situation or when an avoidance action would have been appropriate.
Controlled flight into terrain only marginally avoided. Aborted take-offs on a closed or engaged runway.
Take-offs from a closed or engaged runway with marginal separation from obstacle(s).
Landings or attempted landings on a closed or engaged runway.
Gross failures to achieve predicted performance during take-off or initial climb.
Fires and smoke in the passenger compartment, in cargo compartments or engine fires, even though such fires were extinguished by the use of extinguishing agents.
Events requiring the emergency use of oxygen by the flight crew.
Aircraft structural failures or engine disintegrations not classified as an accident.
Multiple malfunctions of one or more aircraft systems seriously affecting the operation of the aircraft.
Flight crew incapacitation in flight.
Fuel quantity requiring the declaration of an emergency by the pilot.
Take-off or landing incidents. Incidents such as under- shooting, overrunning or running off the side of runways.
Failures of more than one system in a redundancy system mandatory for flight guidance and navigation.
System failures, weather phenomena, operations outside the approved flight envelope or other occurrences which could have caused difficulties controlling the aircraft.
Annex 13 Attachment C
แถมคำว่า serious injury
Serious injury. An injury which is sustained by a person in an accident and which:
- A) requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, commencing within seven days from the date the injury was received; or
- B) results in a fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of fingers, toes or nose); or
- C) involves lacerations which cause severe haemorrhage, nerve, muscle or tendon damage; or
- D) involves injury to any internal organ; or
- E) involves second or third degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5 per cent of the body surface; or
- F) involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation.
Ref: ICAO Annex 13
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